Practice and thinking on research learning activities

Research-based learning and selling of learning and learning activities Qian Ruiyun's research-based learning is a way of learning directly through the students' own access to information, their own exploration and discovery, their own collection and processing of information, and direct experience of the research process. “Research” and “autonomy” are two basic characteristics of this type of learning. The Khan Exhibition of Research 4 activities helps students to internalize and construct the knowledge they have learned, and also helps them to acquire basic knowledge and skills. Learn to think, learn to study, learn to learn, be innovative, and be able to practice. These have far-reaching implications for the lifelong development of students. The "Basic Education Curriculum Reform Outline (Trial)" emphasizes "people-oriented" and "people-oriented development" and proposes a new curriculum reform goal that reflects the requirements of the times. Cultivating students' innovative consciousness and practical ability has become a long-term important task of the education front. Therefore, how the junior high school physics teaching serves the training objectives of the new curriculum, and how to regularly integrate the research learning activities into the ordinary physics teaching has become our hot spot.

Research-based learning activities in physics teaching are inevitable and feasible. This is because physics is a science based on experiments and research. The introduction of the physical concept and the regularity of the law are inseparable from "research." Therefore, the “research” learning activities are integrated into the ordinary physics teaching, so that students can truly understand. Mastering and applying these physical concepts and laws is not only "people-oriented" but also "student-oriented"

The educational needs are also the true embodiment of the essence of physics teaching. Physical knowledge is widely used in production technology, and is closely related to social life. It also provides a broad space and content for research-based learning activities.

The process of integrating research y activities into physics teaching is also the process of physics teaching and learning reform. In the process of "teaching" and "learning", students can not only understand physics knowledge, master basic skills, but also cultivate A certain scientific quality, innovative consciousness, and learning to learn, can adapt to the needs of social development; teachers in the process of participating in the guidance of students will also be inspired by innovation, absorb new knowledge, update teaching concepts, adapt to new curriculum changes, adapt to education The requirements for reforming the new situation.

In the past two years, we have organized r 5 ​​city-level research-based learning demonstration classes in non-type schools, and conducted practical research on integrating research-based learning activities into physics teaching. In the practical research, the physics teaching is closely combined with the students' independent learning and the students' practical research. The preliminary exploration and formation of the research learning activities into the junior high school physics new teaching. The basic way of the experimental class and the review class.

(1) Research-based learning activities are integrated into the practice of physics new courses. Generally, “propose questions” “collecting materials, exploring experiments* (including reading self-study), completing before class/“display communication, analysis and discussion” “inductive summary, feedback Evaluation" is organized and guided by teachers in the class. Teacher-student interaction, life and interaction to complete.

For example, some teachers inspire the students' interest in the reflection of light before the "reflection of light", suggesting to observe the reflection phenomenon of light in life, and to study the reflection law of self-made research light, and propose to study light with learning tools. Some of the thinking questions in the law of reflection guide students to read the text and hands-on experiments around the M question. In the class, students are allowed to exchange the observed phenomenon of “light reflection” in the raw smear. Each group reports the process and conclusions of the study of the law of reflection of light, and discusses the phenomenon of specular reflection and diffuse reflection using the law of reflection of light. The law of reflection of light is plotted.

In the exchange and discussion, one side gives feedback and evaluates. In this way, the original teacher's lectures and demonstrations become the students' own exploration and research, and each student experiences the joy of success.

Another example is that some teachers have guided students around the "atmospheric pressure" and started to do "obedient paper", "radish sucker", "drinking drink knowledge", "cupping a cup of Chinese medicine", "balloon hanging bowl" and so on. Experiment, observe the phenomenon in the experiment, think about the cause of the phenomenon, in the h class, the teacher organizes the students to show the interesting experiments, while letting the students use the knowledge of atmospheric pressure to explain the phenomenon in the experiment, the students understand the atmosphere and The explanation is far more profound than listening to the teacher in the past.

For example, before the "family circuit", some teachers performed simulation boards than students, and around the production of free choice topics, the implementation of research programs, teachers instruct students to complete the study, the "family circuit" lesson into a lesson. 32. (WJm ¥) 22' JWT students practice research activities show class. The class uses "the composition and function of the family circuit, electric energy meter, fuse, socket, test pencil" as a clue, so that each group of representatives to the whole class Introduce the research ideas and activities of "Selection of Switch, Fuse Box", "Wiring of Card U, Screw Lamp Holder", "Electrical Energy Meter", "Fuse", "Leakage and Prevention", etc., teachers and other classmates on behalf of the class The speeches can be questioned, the delegates calmly respond, and the classroom atmosphere is lively and lively.

(2) Practical research on the integration of research-based learning activities into the physics experiment inquiry course. In the textbook, "Research determines the resistance factor", "Research on the relationship between current and voltage, resistance", "resistance series", "resistance parallel", "study on the influence of electric heating factors", etc. In the teachings involved in the part of the experimental exploration or the expansion of "multiple methods of measuring density" and "multiple methods of measuring resistance", the use of "problem to ask questions and design experiments (including selection of equipment, design options) experimental exploration analysis and verification of communication evaluation "The teaching process."

For example, in the "Relationship between Current and Voltage, Resistance" class, some teachers first asked the question: "After learning current, voltage, and resistance, can you guess whether the current is related to which factor, whether you can use an experiment or a The example shows the basis of your guess. After the students guessed and explained the basis of the conjecture, the teacher then asked the following questions in turn, and gradually guided the students to choose equipment and design experiments. 1. Current is related to voltage and resistance. What kind of quantitative relationship exists between them? 2. What methods are often used in physics to study the quantitative relationship between a certain physical quantity and multiple factors? 3. Now study The relationship between current and voltage needs to control what physical quantity, what equipment to choose when experimenting with the experiment, what is the role of these equipment, 4. Draw the experimental circuit diagram of your design.

After the students think about it and set up the circuit, the teacher guides the students to communicate and show each other. After confirmation, ih students discuss: what aspects should be paid attention to when connecting the physical objects according to the circuit diagram, and then the students themselves explore the experiment and record the data. At the end of the experiment, the teacher guides the students to analyze the data and draw conclusions at the same time as the results of the exchange experiments. This verifies the conjectures and turns the original conclusions from the teacher's presentation into the hands-on experience of the students using the control variable method. Design experiments, find out through their own research, the latter is undoubtedly much deeper than the former.

Another example is a teacher teaching "measuring the maximum output power of the human body"

In the first lesson, first ask the question: "Now give you the scales, stopwatch, scale, how do you use the learned power and power knowledge to measure the maximum output power of the human body," the students talked about, and listed five before and after. Program. Every time a program is mentioned, other students will ask questions about the feasibility of the program and conduct argumentation. After more than ten minutes of discussion, I finally found the best solution for measuring the maximum output power of the building. In the full discussion, everyone made clear the measurement method. Then grouped together, measured in the field, and quickly measured the maximum power of each student to climb the building. Finally, the teacher asks a few extended questions for the students to think, so that they can experience the profound meaning of power in a pleasant atmosphere.

(3) Practical research on the integration of research-based learning activities into the physical review class. “Complete the pressure of solids, liquids and gases” “simple machinery”

Explanation of the case and example. Now, after these units are over, the teacher guides the students to conduct practical research, investigate the relevant phenomena in life, and analyze and explain with the knowledge they have learned; guide the students to design and experiment with the relevant questions. On the basis of these activities, come back to the review class. Obviously, the old 4 lessons mode does not apply. Incorporating research-based learning activities into physical review classes, generally after “selecting topics, A-masters and seven-study examples (including explaining phenomena, designing experiments, self-editing exercises), 0 main research results, mutual communication, summary, and opposite evaluations” The process, that is, the teacher can list outlines or a number of small topics for students to choose, and then the students themselves summarize the knowledge structure, find their own application examples of knowledge, use the knowledge they have learned to explain the phenomenon or edit their own questions, or design their own to explain the laws of physics, Experiments of phenomena, etc. In the class of the J class, the teachers carefully organized and let the students demonstrate their own review results.

After the staged learning of thermal phenomena, light phenomena, density, pressure, mechanical energy, internal energy, and electric power, teachers in many schools in the middle, middle, and middle schools have practiced in this way.

For example, after learning "pressure", "liquid pressure" and "atmospheric pressure", some teachers gave a review outline and listed many topics (such as "design experiments, indicating the factors that determine the pressure is small" "design a design that can explain the law of liquid pressure. Experiment" "Looking for a powerful and small example of changing pressure in life and production"

Student choice. After the students choose, they will voluntarily combine, carry out division of labor, some materials, some design experiments, teachers timely guidance, / solution dynamics, master the research situation of each group, in order to organize students to show exchanges in the review class h. In the review class, the teacher instructs the students to show them in order, while introducing their own ideas and the pressure knowledge used, interspersed with other students' comments, questions and teachers' points. For example, in the "liquid internal pressure law" display, a student made a cola bottle with a rubber film at the bottom and two holes with different sidewalls in the vertical direction.

Before the demonstration, use a tape to seal the small hole and fill the bottle with water D. When the tape is demoned, the tape is removed and the students are observed. "This experiment can explain four questions. Whoever says it," the student eagerly spoke. Warm atmosphere. Another student put the balloon skin in a small glass bottle and poured water into the balloon. He could pull the balloon and lift the bottle. Finally, teachers and students jointly summed up and teachers encouraged in time. Throughout the review process, students not only experienced the physicality of life, but also learned to be interesting and useful, and they also sparked many innovations.

For another example, after learning the phenomenon of light, the students in the middle school used the law of light propagation along a straight line to explore the "principle of the shadowless lamp" and photographed the photos of the branches, 2, 4, and 8 candles on the same object. In the review class, everyone can see at a glance the "principle of the shadowless lamp"; in the review class, some students also showed themselves to explore the "bike taillights"

The process of telling the observation of the inside of the battery bulb guessing the inner wall of the fluorescent paint to dismantle the taillights, and drawing a simple description of the structure of the taillights and the principle of complete reflection; some put the plane mirror in the appropriate position, lift the doll One foot, everyone can see the rag doll flying in the mirror, very interesting. Students in No.1 and Mocho Garden Schools use the knowledge of light, the similar triangles in mathematics, and the proportional relationship to list the relationship between the length of the object and the length of the shadow, the straight line of light and the knowledge of similar triangles. There are four different simple calculation methods for “camera imaging and proportional relationship”, “straight line propagation and isosceles triangle knowledge”, and the latter two methods are beyond the teacher’s expectations.

(1) Conducting research-based learning activities should be based on "development" and embody "developmentality"

Physics teaching includes both "teaching" and "learning". Therefore, the research learning activities in junior high school physics teaching should be based on the development of students and the development of teachers. In the first place, teachers should change their educational thoughts, based on the "development based on students" to design teaching, think about problems from the perspective of facilitating development, and strive to guide students to study independently, encourage them to seek different innovations, and actively construct their own knowledge systems. .

This kind of learning method not only enables students to truly understand and master knowledge and skills, but also promotes their open mind, learns to learn, and learns more and more "live", has certain ability, scientific literacy and innovative consciousness for their lifelong learning and The foundation for development will enable them to more actively adapt to the needs of social development. For teachers, in this kind of research-based learning activities, teachers and students exchange and promote each other. Students need the "guidance" of teachers in the process of completing relevant content research, while students' independent learning, open thinking, It also inevitably promotes the broad vision of teachers, the expansion of thinking, the change of ideas, and the renewal of knowledge.

For example, in the research review class of “pressure and liquid pressure”, the students showed the fact that “on the dam break, in order to slow down the flow of water, to facilitate the filling, first to block the mouth with a water-filled bag”, It makes students feel new and makes teachers open their eyes. For example, after students finish the third year of physical "life use electricity", "electricity and magnetic (a) *, some teachers guide students to use the control variable method to explore the relationship between "hot water bottle insulation and water volume"" frictional force and material relationship “The separation of water and alcohol”; there are also some teachers who guide students around the “Selection and Installation of Lamps in Family Life” and “Self-made Small Motor Models” to carry out extracurricular practical research activities, so that students can learn what they have learned and social practice. Contact, students through the social adjustment, online consultation, access to information and other means to obtain the book 1: no knowledge. Although students are facing graduation at the time, but these teachers believe that guiding students to contact the society in research practice activities, Paying attention to the technical problems related to the knowledge learned, and working together with the students to study together, and initially understand the methods of scientific inquiry, and initially obtain scientific literacy, which will have a great impact on their lives. This is far more than doing a few questions. It takes more meaning to cope with the exam. (In fact, these activities did not affect the entrance exams. In the middle school entrance examination, they all achieved excellent results.) After making the small electric motor, the students deeply realized: "The process of making the small motor model not only makes you know the principle and structure of the motor, but also the technical role of the commutator. And his own will and perseverance have withstood the test, and this courage to overcome difficulties must be brought to the future of study and life to face the greater challenges of life. “In the display class of “Family Lighting Installation and Installation”, the students showed more than 20 different designs (some of which won the first prize of the National Youth Science and Technology Innovation Competition), and some reported the online inquiry during the research process. The experience of foreign experts exchanges. These sparks of innovation are not only unexpected to teachers, but also impact the innovation spark of teachers' hearts, and promote the common development of teachers and students.

(2) Conducting research-based learning activities, caring for each student, embodying "all sexuality" and "autonomy"

Education is equal to every citizen. Conduct research-based learning activities in physics teaching, and care for the growth and development of each student. It cannot be considered to be applicable only to "tip" students who have a good foundation in learning. Different students have different personality, psychology, intelligence, emotion and quality. The performance and depth of research in research learning activities are often different. In physics teaching, when conducting research-based learning activities, different guidance and incentives should be adopted to encourage students to tap their potentials. Practice has proved that in some schools with poor students and poor conditions, research learning activities can also be carried out in physics teaching. For example, there is a middle school in the city that is located in the outer suburbs and has poor students. It is an ordinary junior high school with backward facilities. There is a teacher actively carrying out teaching methods and reforming the law, and introducing research-based learning activities into the teaching of new lectures and review classes. As a result, the enthusiasm of students to learn physics is greatly mobilized, and the joy of success is experienced from inquiry, and self-confidence and sense of accomplishment are realized in physics learning.

In the physics teaching, research learning activities should be based on the emphasis on students' autonomy and inquiry learning, mainly in the form of individual or group cooperation. Teachers and students are partnerships, teachers are organizers and designers. It is also a participant and a guide. Therefore, in research-based learning activities, teachers should continually stimulate students' enthusiasm for participation, leave students with space for independent thinking, develop students' creative potential, and give guidance and help in the selection of topics and methods, but not too much. Create a situation of independent learning and activities, and activate the students' initiative to explore the inner enthusiasm of learning, so as to effectively cultivate students' ability to think independently, learn independently, and their organizational, social, and comprehensive practical skills.

(3) Conduct research-based learning activities, pay attention to contact with reality, select topics, and embody the "applicability" of knowledge.

Physics is closely related to science, technology, and society. Integrating research-based learning activities into physics teaching is the key to selecting a topic. The topic should be close to the student's actual life, from the students' familiar life and production examples, reflecting the extensive application of physics knowledge in science, technology and society. Attention should also be paid to the relevance of schools, families, and other disciplines. This is easy to stimulate students' interest in inquiry. For example, in conjunction with the contents of the first volume of the current junior high school physics, the following topics can be listed (most of the following topics have been practiced).

Make a meter with different scales and measure your height with this ruler.

Use different methods to measure the diameter of large trees.

Measuring mosquito burning speed, ants, turtles, snail crawling speed, store escalator rising speed.

4 Adjust the source of noise around schools and homes and prevent them.

Observe various evaporation and liquefaction phenomena in life and enumerate their utilization and prevention methods.

Investigate the superiority of vegetable greenhouses.

Observe the kitchen string. The thermal phenomenon is explained by the knowledge learned.

Observe the light phenomenon in life and try to explain it with the knowledge you have learned.

Use the straight line of light to measure the height of the building or the flagpole.

Study the refraction of light by different liquids.

Homemade kaleidoscope, periscope, camera, and explain its principles.

Survey of vision status and prevention of a group (school, community, village).

Investigate the application of density knowledge in life.

Explore several methods for measuring the density of a substance that is less than water.

Use density knowledge to explore different methods for measuring the area of ​​provinces and cities.

A self-made dynamometer studies the endurance of different materials.

The application of pressure regulation and liquid pressure in daily life, the experimental study of pressure and liquid pressure law to study the maximum pressure of the plastic bag and the maximum pressure on the ground.

Investigate nearby ship locks, flood control and drainage measures.

Investigate the pressure capacity of the foundation of the house.

Study the relationship between boiling point and pressure.

Explore several methods for measuring the density of glass balls, pendants, milk, and beverages.

Homemade kongming lanterns, hot air balloons, density meters, submarines.

Observe the levers, pulleys, and axles in your life.

Simple mechanical application on the ground.

Study the physics knowledge on the vise.

Research on the mechanics of bicycles.

Measure the maximum output power of the human body.

(4) Conducting research-based learning activities to reflect "diversity"

The first is the “diversity” of research learning activities. Research-based learning activities in physics teaching can be placed in the class, can be placed outside the classroom, or can be an organic combination of in-class activities and extra-curricular activities; it can be the exploration of the whole class, or it can be part of the inquiry. The way to study activities can be the reading of in-class and extra-curricular textbooks, the exploration of in-class and extra-curricular experiments, extracurricular visits, surveys, interviews, Internet access, and so on.

The second is the “diversity” of learning methods. Research learning is a learning style, but not the only way to learn. When designing a teaching plan, it is necessary to combine the knowledge of books with the actual, and also to choose according to the specific conditions of the school, teachers and students, and combine the research-based learning methods with other learning methods such as learning, discovery and learning.

The third is the “diversity* (the evaluation of diversification of research-based learning activities should be heavy” process of research-based learning activities evaluation method. It is about to observe, record and describe the performance of students in the course of activities as the basis for evaluating students. In the operation, the scores of the students can be scored according to the performance of the students, or the targeted experiments or exercises can be descriptively evaluated according to the content of the evaluation indicators, or the A, B, and C grades can be evaluated according to the mastery of knowledge and skills. Self-assessment and mutual evaluation (between classmates, teachers and students); qualitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation. This evaluation method is a challenge to the traditional evaluation of results (5) conducting research activities Pay attention to the openness of thinking and reflect "innovativeness". In the research-based learning activities, students are the main body of activities. Teachers can give guidance and help on the choice of topics and methods, but they should not be too "introducing", not even more. "Alternative" teachers should constantly encourage students to participate in the enthusiasm, leaving students with the space to think independently. Through "one question and multiple solutions" "a question and answer" Self-editing the title, "self-changing the title", etc., creating a situation, triggering the "conflict", "divergence", "openness" and "expansion" of thinking, comparing the best programs in various methods, and then "expanding". Students in these studies In the activity of “sexually seeking” thinking, the consciousness of innovation has accumulated over time and has been cultivated.

For example, in the "Conductors and Insulators" class, some teachers motivate students to take the initiative to participate, let students think of ways to design several ways to determine whether objects are easy to conduct. As a result, in addition to using the method of “connecting objects into the circuit and observing whether the small light bulbs are shining”, the students also came up with the idea of ​​whether the object can attract light and small objects after frictional electrification, or “after friction”. The object is in contact with the electroscope ball, and it is observed whether the angle of the test piece of the foil is changed, or three methods such as table judgment.

For example, before the "Joule Law", some teachers put forward the topic of "investigating which factors are related to electric heating", so that students can make bold guesses and design experimental verification conjectures. After the students' enthusiasm for inquiry is stimulated, in order to compare the electric heating size and resistance I have come up with many methods. Some have designed experiments to compare the "heating wire to make the red ink spread quickly". Some designs "observe the comparison of electric heating wire to make the match burn successively", and some designs "heating wire heating speed up" The rate of oxygen reaction of potassium citrate is determined by the speed of balloon inflation. Some use the knowledge of string and parallel, and use three resistors wrapped with wax to design the brother and /2 series and resistor. The circuit connected in parallel to the power supply is used to observe the order of melting of the wax on the three resistors under different conditions to study the electric heating and current/, resistance and time f. In the course of designing experiments, it was also found that the time required for liquid expansion to compare the magnitude of electric heating in textbooks was long, and the idea of ​​using air to expand the design experiment was proposed.

For example, after learning the "circuit", some teachers guide students to design and install circuits closely related to life. After the students' enthusiasm for inquiry is stimulated, in just one week, 56 students in the class were designed and installed in 18 groups. "Password Light Switch" "Rescue Alarm Circuit" "Traffic Light Circuit"

Road, and have been physically installed. Among them, the password switch involves the "gate circuit" that has not been learned, but the students have understood it in their own research activities and introduced it to other students in a structured manner.

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